Thermal insulation of buildings
Suffered rights since the beginning of the climatic conditions surrounding prompting him to try to address these environmental conditions through experiments long and continuous dwelt trees and caves in the beginning then he used construction was able to recognize the characteristics of building materials and develops until he became used most effectively to meet the needs and requirements .
Through scientific development discovered that one of the major flaws in concrete buildings poor thermal behavior and its disposal , given the nature and severity of climate temperature. The best evidence of this is the electric power consumption curve :
– In cities with warm nature of the observed high consumption of electricity in the summer than doubled for the winter . The reason for such a large increase is mainly due to the electrical energy used to run the air conditioning means diverse and the people are forced to expel the intense heat and the window to their homes as a result of poor quality and resistance to the walls and ceilings to penetrate from the outside heat .
– In cities with cold nature , we find that the opposite is true electrical consumption in winter is greater than the summer so as to overcome the loss of heat from the inside out
Hence, we must think about what can be controlled at the individual level to scare away the electrical consumption through the adjustment :
– Choosing the right exterior colors
– The direction of the building and distribution of the holes , area and processed
– The removal of the walls and ceilings exposed to the atmosphere and external climatic conditions
– Selection of windows and doors thermally insulated
The definition of thermal insulation
Is the process of preventing the transmission of heat from one place to another in whole or in part, and taking advantage of the properties of certain materials as poor thermal conductivity such as increased capacity and thermal property reversal is achieved through the use of substances that have the properties of thermal insulation so help reduce leakage and heat transfer from the outside of the building and to the inside in summer , from inside to outside in the winter.
Heat penetration methods for construction:
Can be divided into heat that penetrates the building, which is supposed dislodge the use of air conditioning to keep the temperature appropriate to the three types are:
– Heat that penetrates walls and ceilings.
– Heat that penetrates the windows.
– Heat transmitted through natural ventilation openings.
The estimated heat that penetrates walls and ceilings in the summer days by 60 -70% of the heat you want to dislodge with air conditioning.
The rest comes from windows and vents.
The estimated proportion of electric power consumed in the summer to cool the building by about 66% of the full electric power.
Hence the importance of thermal insulation to reduce the consumption of electrical energy used for air conditioning purposes, so as to reduce heat leakage through the walls, ceilings, windows and doors to achieve an appropriate functional housing and reduce the cost.
The advantages of using thermal insulation
Reduces power consumption up to 40% during the cooling process inside the building.
Maintain the proper temperature of the building for a long time without the need to run air conditioners for long periods of time
Increases the level of comfort to residents of the building and provides a pleasant ambience inside.
Protects the building materials used in the installations of the impact of the change in temperature.
Protects the furniture inside the buildings.
Reduce environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.
Leads to the use of air conditioners with a small capacity and thus reduces the rates of consumption of electric power, which helps to reduce problems caused by the loads and reduce the cost and value of the item electromechanical works.
Reduces the use of air conditioners, which reduces the health and psychological impact on humans because of the internal noise resulting from the operation of these devices
The thermally insulated buildings have less permeability to the noise caused by the use of air conditioners and refrigeration equipment and external noise.
Selection of appropriate thermal insulation material
One of the most important factors that influence the choice of appropriate thermal insulation material include:
1 – to be resistant insulating material thermal conductivity is low.
2 – to be a high degree of resistance to the force of water and radiation.
3 – must be a high degree of resistance to the absorption of water vapor.
4 – must be a high degree of resistance to stress caused by the large differences in temperature.
It is that material or combination of materials which, if used in an appropriate manner can prevent or reduce the transfer of heat through the different heat transfer (Plug – Pregnancy – radiation)
And insulating materials can be divided mainly into two main types:
A – Insulation walls, ceilings and floors
B – Insulators doors and windows
Insulation of walls and ceilings and floors
And most of these can be used also as a material internal charges for metal doors
Thermal insulation material is divided by sources into five sections:
1 – insulating materials of animal origin: such as wool and animal hair, and is used as insulating materials is limited.
3 – for industrial thermal insulation materials: include rubber and plastic foam, and the last is the most common and most used is the type of polystyrene and polyurethane foam panels can be used tin and aluminum.
4 – insulating materials of vegetable origin: include fiber or Cellulose materials such as reeds, cork, foam rubber, cotton and so on.
5 – organic insulating materials: as asphalt.
The forms which are insulating materials are as follows:
1. Insulating materials in bulk: They are usually in the form of powder or granules flowing normally between walls or in any closed space can also be mixed with some other material which is used in particular in non-performing fill in the blanks.
2. Flexible insulating material Shape: They differ in the degree of flexibility and usability of bend or pressure and is usually found in the form of cutting or rolls usually prove nails and the like glass wool, rock and aluminum foil and the like.
3. Solids: There are in the form of the dimensions of the boards and limited thickness polyurethane and polystyrene.
4. Liquid dielectric materials: poured or sprayed in or on the desired location to form an insulating layer such like polyurethane foam and foam rubber.
Insulators doors and windows
A door or window is divided generally into two categories:
1 – Frame:
– When using a metal frame can be used most of the walls as insulation fillings for internal insulation
– When using a wooden framework is inherently achieves the highest level of insulation
2 – inside:
– When the inside of the same type of frame applied to him what a dish on the frame
– When using glass inside, there are several ways to isolate and is double insulating glass is the perfect choice in residential and commercial buildings and insulating glass consists of two glass plates, at least, are installed and parallel together to form a tightly sealed unit. The principle upon which is to make a cavity between two sheets of glass or more, filled with dry air or another gas as Argon, Xenon or Krypton. The and fills rod frame interval between the tables moisture-absorbent granules.
Thermal insulation properties
Given the design requirements , the choice of insulating material is required in addition to the specific knowledge of their thermal properties , knowledge of other secondary properties of the material as water absorption and combustion and rigidity , etc. .
A. Thermal properties :
They are meant material ‘s ability to thermal insulation and is usually measured thermal conductivity coefficient smaller the conductivity coefficient indicates that enhance the material ‘s resistance to heat transmission . Thermal resistance is inversely proportional to the coefficient of thermal conductivity of the insulating material is usually made by all the different means of transport (Plug and pregnancy and radiation).
The reflective material is its high radiation response and heat waves are effective materials in thermal insulation provided that the corresponding vacuum aerobically and increase the ability of these materials to increase their brightness insulation and refined.
And are often integrated with foam insulation , ceilings and walls so to see the total resistance of the thermal transmission must collect various resistors to the wall or ceiling layers including aerobics class resistance adjacent to the interior or exterior surfaces .
The collection of these resistors resemble fully collect electrical resistors , they are either parallel or sequence , and this depends on the composition of the material in the wall or in the ceiling. In addition to the reported thermal properties , there are other properties such as heat quality , capacity and coefficient of thermal expansion and proliferation and that needs to know each insulating material .
B. Mechanical properties
Some insulation materials characterized by strength and the ability to download. But sometimes this can be used to contribute to the support and load of the building in addition to its primary goal of thermal insulation. This is seen to withstand the pressure and strength and tensile shear etc. .
The presence of water in wet or liquid or solid insulating material reduces the value of thermal insulation material or reduces the thermal resistance , as it may contribute to the destruction of material rapidly .
And the effect of moisture on the material depends on the properties of matter in terms of their ability to uptake and force, also depends on the climatic atmosphere surrounding a possible heat and humidity , etc. . The properties measured by the extent of the influence of the material is moisture absorption and permeability .
D. Safety and health
Some insulation materials certain characteristics of which may expose human risk both storage time or during transport or installation or during use may cause cause deformities in the human body , permanently or temporarily , as the wounds and pimples , poisoning and pulmonary infections or allergic reactions in the skin and eyes , which requires importance knowledge of the chemical composition of the insulating material . As well as other physical characteristics in terms of their combustion and sublimation .
Some heat insulating materials may be used to achieve some of the requirements as acoustic sound absorption and vibration absorption so knowing the characteristics associated with this aspect may meet to achieve two goals by one means
F. Other requirements
In addition to the above properties , there are properties that may be necessary when choosing insulating material appropriate density as knowledge and the ability to resist shrinkage and the possibility to use and regularity of dimensions and resistance to chemical reactions and sizes and thicknesses are available , etc. . Add all the foregoing finally the economic factor plays an important role in decision-making, in the price of insulating material has a big impact when choosing.
What is the appropriate amount of foam
Is usually choose quality insulating material balance between the economic cost and the extent of achievement of the requirements of the major and minor , but this choice does not sing as seeking to determine the appropriate thickness of the selected material . Buildings can be divided in terms of the quality and method of acquisition of the main heat into two types:
1. Most of the buildings acquired heat comes through the cortex , or outer shell of the building in the sense that the cooling and heating requirements roughly proportional to the temperature difference between the interior and exterior. Located housing , stores usually in this section because the heat gained from abroad far outweigh the heat produced by the various activities within it. In these buildings , increased thermal insulation in the outer shell of the building will not necessarily reduce the amount of heat gained or lost and this consequently leads to reduce the energy needed to remove gain or lose compensation . To determine the optimal thickness of the insulation material in buildings of this type , the main officer for this limitation is the amount of the total cost is equal to the total cost of insulating material and the cost of the energy needed to adapt the building.
2. The main buildings acquired heat comes from inside these buildings be the main acquisition as a result of the heat of activities built inside factories or as a result of the large number of users or the heat generated by artificial lighting as offices and the like . In such buildings, because most of the acquisition is not affected mainly external weather conditions , increasing the thickness of the insulating layer does not necessarily lead to reducing the cost of energy , but may lead to the increase as well as increase the total cost. Increase the thickness of the insulating layer leads to the retention of heat gained in the inside of the accumulation increases cooling loads and clear manner . So Buildings of this type need to be a thorough study by the computer to determine the thermal behavior of the building throughout the year using different thicknesses of the insulating material and then access to the optimum thickness .
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