According to any, even the most superficial research, the faulty wiring in the House or apartment is dangerous, above all, not because of the risk of electric shock, but due to prospects of a fire.
No, of course, the danger of electric shock is not excluded, but the fire is not less likely, and when it can occur repeatedly carry out not one life and bring great destruction. Therefore, when designing, installing and operating electrical wiring should not forget about some measures capable of providing fire safety and protect people from trouble.
1. Measures to ensure the fire safety of wiring at the design stage
1.1 choice of brand of cables and wires required for installation. For stationary installation in residential and non-residential indoor copper cables it is recommended to use NYM. For portable receivers and extension cords suitable cables PVC and SHVVP. The isolation of these cables does not propagate burning and even in case of overheating cannot cause a fire. Aluminum cable for use in mounting is not allowed, because the contacts involving aluminium conductors are more prone to loss of reliability and racing, which could cause a fire.
1.2 selection of cross-section lived cables and wires. Sections should be chosen for maximum loading of cores, taking into account the maximum allowance a long current. Moreover, this rule is not constant, it depends on how many lived in cable insulation type and method of cable laying. The specific values for the most popular sections of copper cables in PVC or rubber insulation below.
Cable cross-section 1.5 kV. mm
Laid open (regardless of the number of cores)-23 amp;
Padded hidden, two single-19 amp;
Padded hidden, three single-17 amp;
Padded hidden, four single-16 ampere;
Padded hidden, one twin-core-18 amps;
Padded hidden, one twin-15 amps;
Cable cross-section of 2.5 sq. mm
Laid open (regardless of the number of cores)-30 amp;
Padded hidden, two single-27 amp;
Padded hidden, three single-25 amp;
Padded hidden, four single-25 amp;
Padded hidden, one twin-25 amp;
Padded hidden, one twin-core-21 amps;
Cable cross-section up to 4 kV. mm
Laid open (regardless of the number of cores) is 41 amps;
Padded hidden, two single-38 amp;
Padded hidden, three single-core cables-35 amps; Padded hidden, four single-30 amp;
Padded hidden, one twin-32 ampere;
Padded hidden, one twin-27 amp;
Section 6 kV cable. mm
Laid open (regardless of the number of cores)-50 amps;
Padded hidden, two single-46 amps;
Padded hidden, three single-42 amps;
Padded hidden four single 40-ampere;
Padded hidden, one twin 40-ampere;
Padded hidden, one twin-core-34 amp.
If you suspect that the conditions of use will contribute to increased heat lived, these standards can be understated. But the increase is undesirable, as this can lead to overheating of the insulation.
1.3 the right choice of denomination machines maximum overcurrent protection.
Usually this choice exercise cable core cross-section. For the 1.5 kV. mm. -not more than 16 amperes for 2.5 kV. mm. -no more than 25 to 4 kV. mm. -no more than 40, and for 6 kV. mm-no more than 50. But all the same it is necessary to consider the current denomination of consumers who are included in the line. In fact consuming current to exceed its own rule, the electrical appliance may not only fail, but come on, and the automatic switch for cable and this will be a regular work routine. Therefore, if only one outlet line installed at 16 amps, and must not be more than 16 amps, even if the cable line has a cross-section of 2.5 sq. mm.
1.4 right choice way cable laying the basic rule here is-the cable should not be directly held by designs. The most striking example is the wooden walls, an open transaction which can only be performed on roller skates or placing a metal strip under the cord. You can hide the cable or plastic bumps the cable channel. Even worse, when cable hide under a wooden covering-there’s a direct risk of fire. Hidden wiring must be performed in wooden houses in the pipes.
1.5 the device indoors this working fire alarm-measure is by no means superfluous, especially in large wooden homes where fire can spread quickly, and notice it is not always possible in time.
2. Measures to ensure the fire safety of wiring on the stage of installation
2.1 the main measure here is the absence of “initiative”. Work should be carried out in full conformity with the project and in case of doubt or disagreement it is better to seek advice to designers or supervisory authorities.
2.2 cable products used for installation is subject to obligatory certification. Your provider must submit a certificate on cable on demand. By using cables of unknown origin and dubious quality better abstain. The same applies to all other electrical products, even one that is not subject to certification.
2.3 All connection cables lived must be performed in Assembly and distribution boxes using certified, such as PPE. Twisting wires and terminal connection just on the surface of a wall, ceiling or even under a covering categorically not allowed.
2.4 maximum overcurrent protection Devices it is recommended to load and check for proper operation before installing. This is due to the fact that even the most advanced manufacturers allowed some percentage defective in its output, and the defective machine is unlikely to save you from excessive current and heat.
2.5 upon completion of installation you must provide access to distribution boxes for subsequent service and check the contacts.
3. Measures to ensure the fire safety of wiring at the stage of exploitation
3.1 should refrain from excessive abuse of multiple sockets and extension cords. Extension cables must not be underfoot, they cannot add furniture and heavy objects. It must be remembered that the maximum current for anyone, even dual-phase Sockets is 16 amps. And exceed this value, as the maximum current protection when this may not work, and the rosette can become dangerous.
3.2 should systematically verify connections lived in distribution boxes. This requirement is not always met. Nevertheless, timely detected bad contact can help you avoid many problems.
3.3 you must monitor the clamping pins Sockets, change the worn outlet and prevent exploitation of sparking with Plug connectors.
3.4 you must not leave unattended included heaters-irons, electric heaters, lamps and so on.
3.5 Leaving your home for a long time, it is better to turn off the induction or automatic, to have confidence that your lack of anything bad will happen.
How to install electrical wiring. decided to install in a private home or apartment wiring. To ensure high fire safety house wiring is necessary, to ensure the safety of wiring in a building. the total capacity of all consumers of urban flats,lighting, fridge and maintenance of fire and electrical safety wiring.