The supporting balcony slab is the main element of the entire structure. It acts as a support and determines the area of the fenced space for use for the intended economic purposes. The condition of this support determines the reliability and safety of the entire balcony. Taking into account the insecurity of the slab from the wind, temperature jumps, precipitation, direct sunlight, this condition should be monitored constantly and very carefully. Even small cracks or faults of the balcony slab should alert and give impetus to the immediate exploration of the balcony. Where safety or sometimes human life, inaction and any procrastination depend on the reliability of a structure or its elements, it is unacceptable to be safe. After all, in the risk zone are not only family members and its guests, but also unsuspecting pedestrians, whose route runs near your house.
A minor-looking crack can become a water leaking channel to the fixture. As a result – corrosion and weakening of the frame of the concrete slab; det away, painting, the destruction of concrete. Such a crack easily becomes the reason for the beginning of major repairs. Its necessity is also obvious without the expert opinion in the case of: detachment and peeling off pieces of concrete; the appearance of a crack at the junction of the slab with the bearing house wall; the ification of the parts of the repair, its corrosion; Fault detection shattered parapet, which is associated with welding fixture; tilt of the balcony, exceeding the built-in slope for precipitation outflow.
Preparing the slab for repair
From the balcony remove all things and throw away the accumulated garbage. Hammer with an elongated handle begin to knock the concrete slab with blows of medium force. Weak solution immediately crumbles, and by the loud sounds of blows determine the places of voids and detachments.
To further eliminate these shortcomings, concrete in such places is first broken. Important! Planning an overhaul of the balcony, do not hesitate to coordinate their actions with the neighbors of the upper and lower floors. Common elements of the structure – balcony slabs – it is better to restore or repair jointly. Or at least you need to have access to them from neighboring apartments. After the first stage of research and cleaning of unnecessary construction debris, begin to examine the identified cracks.
A good tool for this is a set of probes that measure the width of gaps. An alternative would be a narrow metal spatula or a metal line. The pike is needed to classify the crack. If the tent inserted into it after 30-40 mm sharply rests and does not pass further – the crack is superficial. When after a certain pressure the probe progresses more and at the end of it jams – the crack goes deep into the plate and this case can be qualified as a rift. This is much more serious than the first case. And now the balcony slab in addition to repairs will have to be strengthened.
Surface cracks of the plate and in the place of its connection with the wall (emerge from shrinkage screed, as a result of temperature deformations) can be patched independently. It will also not be difficult to restore or align the chipped corners and edges with the usual screed solution – the edges are not loaded. Before repairing cracks and edges, their surface is pre-treated with concrete contact.
Capital or emergency repairs?
More serious violations of the support slab should be examined by a certified specialist, who makes a conclusion about the degree of destruction, the possibility of recovery and the form of necessary repairs.
Photo: Emergency repairs to the balcony Avaric repair consists of dismantling the remains of an old balcony and creating a new one on the same site. Not every city, even the regional, city has organizations that have permission and sufficient personnel qualifications for the overhaul of balconies. What can we say about emergency repairs, which will require special equipment and industrial climbers. It is very difficult to process a package of documents for such repairs. Therefore, it would be logical to advise – not to bring the balcony slabs of their apartments to an emergency state and to respond in a timely manner to any initial deviations leading to further destruction.
Photo: Overhauling the balcony Capital plate repair is also not an easy occupation for home craftsmen. From the outside it seems not very complicated list of repair works: stripping the slab to a solid base; stripping, alignment, supplementing the missing fixture with welding; queering to reinforced fixtures of new railings; concrete contact treatment of the durable plate skeleton; Manufacturing of form work; Concrete; waterproofing of the restored slab; Installing ebb and out to prevent re-destruction restoring the surface of the slab (bottom) from the neighbors.
But theoretical knowledge must be supported by sufficient experience to know:
How long should the old crumbling layer be knocked down;
Which part of the fixture and parapet can be left and which must be changed;
how to concrete and how to restore the slab, so that the residue merged with the new concrete into a single whole.
For work you need concrete on strength not lower than class B10, on frost resistance – not lower than F32. Its preparation should be carried out on industrial equipment. A high-skilled specialist, who understands all the intricacies of the process, should be concreted.
The general conclusion for both repair options is an expensive exercise that is carried out by specialists.
Repairs with serving fixtures
Photo: Repair when serving fixtureS When painting or destroying the slab elements of the reinforcement metal frame are bare, and sometimes stick out of its remnants. Metal brush with them remove rust, treat rust converter (can be conventional vinegar), prime. After that, concrete is poured.
If some of the rods are unusable or lost due to destructive corrosion – the frame is welded with the use of new elements. Preliminary remove concrete to the repair, cut the damaged elements, if necessary, new bars concrete in the wall and welding connect into a solid frame. An additional reinforced mesh can be applied before concrete.
Repair of a partially or completely destroyed slab
This is a work exclusively for specialists, because the technology provides for the impact of the carrier house structure. In the prepared deep holes the walls insert and concrete the sweller. To it weld a corner on the perimeter of the future slab and a steel sheet. Now it’s the turn for a new reinforcement frame and concrete.
Strengthening the console balcony slab
Photo The reinforcement of the console balcony slabSo stove with one edge is fixed into the supporting wall. Indeed, it can be said that it hangs on the edge. This type of balconies is more prone to loads and in long-operated buildings is to be strengthened.
The solution is to install modules under the stove, which act as supporting brackets. Pros of such strengthening: the slab is unloaded and now the weight will be able to withstand warm glazing, insulation, heavier finish of the balcony room; The modulon itself creates a well-tolerated pressure on the walls to compress them. Minus – neighbors do not always agree on the presence of a weighty ceiling on his balcony.
The second option is to install okosin on the sides of the slab, which weld to the fixture of the slab and walls. For the strength of the entire structure, the slants are tied together with a schweller, which is placed on the overhanging edge of the slab. A thorough audit of the condition of the wall is carried out before work. The main disadvantage is the inconvenience of glazing the sides or the abandonment of it.
Note! The condition of the upper slab above the balcony is also assessed and the conclusion is made about the need for cosmetic or restoration work. If the slab was repaired above the balcony of the upper floor – it must be covered with a layer of waterproofing (used special mastics, melted materials).
Repair of the parapet
Photo: Repair of the parapet To necessary in repair occurs before the planned glazing of the balcony, when replacing the old dilapidated parapet, after the restoration of the destroyed slab or part of its reinforcement frame. A metal corner or a profile pipe of a square (rectangular) section is suitable for work. The lower strapping is done on the perimeter of the slab. To it are boiled (attached) vertical racks, which are welded to the fixture, and lateral also fasten to the wall anchors. Railings are welded on the upper level of the racks. If the balcony will be outdable, the racks are installed at a slope from the wall. For further glazing it is recommended to make wide railings.
Fact! Self-strengthening, strengthening, takeaway, expansion of the balcony involve the experience of such works, the presence of at least one assistant and the presence of a certain range of semi-professional and professional construction tools.
Flooring on a concrete slab
Photo: The floor on a concrete slab Is a repaired or restored slab that becomes a safe base for the balcony floor. That’s just undesirable to align the outer slope of the slab with a concrete screed – the extra weight load on the stove is undesirable. The slope is concealed by the use of wedge-shaped lags. They are stacked high side to the parapet. The result is a horizontal base under the rough floor. Now, in the case of the stove’s insulation, the queue of laying between the lags of Styrofoam or aluminum synteton. After that, you can put a rough pillow and on it to fill the floor of laminate or other decorative finish.
Important! Mineral cotton wool should be excluded from the possible options of the chosen insulation for the floor and walls under the glazing around the perimeter of the parapet. It is quickly imbued with moisture, as it shifts the dew point. The result – it creates an additional load on the stove, loses its geometric shape and subsides, ceases to function as a heater.
This material will help in the implementation of simple cosmetic and restoration work. When you turn to specialists to determine the scope of the upcoming work with the choice of methods to solve existing problems, it will be useful for communicating with them in the same “language.”