Correction of defects in the walls – Defects such as cracks, chips and dents in building products – it is a problem of residential and commercial buildings. From cracking plaster destroyed , torn wallpaper , paint peels , therefore, violated the appearance of the building. Defects are of different origin and different sizes – from small cracks in plaster harmless to the big holes in the masonry. If these defects are not corrected , they can compromise the integrity of products up to destruction.
Most of these deficiencies can be easily removed with your hands . Need only comply with the recommendations described . Very often we see on the wall from the roof to the foundation visible crack. Often , from the bearing wall building wall separated the porch. On a partially destroyed masonry or gaping big hole .
These and many other defects should be repaired . It is important to find the cause of a fault, then the right to remove him . For example , if you find a crack above the window in masonry and plastered it, then after a short period of time it appears again . And if you understand that the crack appeared in mind weak jumper window opening , and then eliminate this drawback , the crack will not appear again .
Occurrence of defects in the walls can cause disruptions of production technology works. Placement of the building on heaving soils or in the zone of high seismic activity , as well as the location of buildings near the railroad may further cause the appearance of defects.
Artists who are building their own, who have no experience in building and dominates unjustified saving materials make many mistakes , which also leads to the appearance of defects in structures . Very often the appearance of flaws on the walls of the building is the result of improper manufacturing foundation and its elements.
If the foundation is mounted on unconsolidated ground , it will lead to uneven subsidence of its elements , then the wall can burst at the weakest point . Foundation can sag when poorly made or no blind area of the building and the water gets under it . There ground is wet and becomes mobile ( more compressed ) under the foundation elements . As a result , the wall sags and cracks .
It is known that after the construction of the walls and ceilings to install foundations come into force from the weight of these structures. Under the influence of the soil under the foundation efforts compacted and foundations give small shrinkage that will lead to cracks in the walls.
There are many ways to eliminate complex defects arising in the construction of buildings. There are technologies to strengthen the bearing capacity of foundations, slabs amplification methods door and window openings . There are technological methods (building buttresses ) that allow you to stop the growth of cracks in the wall of a building . But to eliminate such deficiencies are advised to contact a specialist.
Here are a few examples of violations process often repeated in the construction of buildings that can cause problems :
1) high layer is not compacted soil under the foundation ;
2) is not made waterproofing basements ;
3) the lack of depth of the foundation ;
4) lack of a reinforcing belt in the basement ;
5) incorrectly executed overlapping window and door openings in the walls of the building ;
6) small thickness of the walls of the building and the lack of reinforcing belts in the walls of the building;
7) low strength characteristics of mortar and concrete mixtures ;
8) large areas of windows and doorways ;
9) performed poorly welding ceiling elements and wall panels of the building;
10) roof truss system is made in violation of the technology.
If the defect (crack , the gap between the walls) does not increase in size, it can be corrected. Minor defects disappear during plastering . Major defects in brick or concrete walls ( cracks, dents , chips and holes ) , you must first “develop .”
Puncher on defects cut chamfer. If necessary, go deep or delete unnecessary portions of the wall. Remove the remains of felled and cleaned from dust ( rinse with water ) developed surface. Moisten the surface of the primer and , using a spatula , to close up any makeup that is available.
To eliminate defects can apply a special blend to repair walls in selling their large variety of formulations , brands and types . However, suitable for repair and cement-based solution (one part cement to three parts sand) . Use formulations that are available.
For this work fit the tile adhesive , plaster , cement- sand mixture , as well as mounting adhesive . The main thing is that the repaired surface after drying , you need to putty . Very many defects have walls made of concrete panels . They have chipped concrete elements at the joints with the adjacent plate stove. Are chipped at the mounting loops on the corners or panels. Many panels are cracked . Such shortcomings are eliminated by the above method .
When there is gap between the panels mounted , it must be filled with foam . After drying, cut the excess foam butt glue or metal reinforcing mesh and caproic putty surface.
On the surface of concrete products are often observed bare spots fittings or rust spots that need to be protected from corrosion. With a chisel and hammer to develop where visible fittings and rust stains . Grind valve sandpaper , degrease and paint . After drying putty surface .
Brick walls, having a lot of defects on the surface it is sometimes easier to shift , followed by replacement of damaged bricks than to repair . Large deep recesses or through holes in the walls are sealed with the use of fillers ( pieces of brick or gravel ) .
To do this , on the prepared surface , apply the solution in two layers between which is pressed into rubble . Large and deep potholes in the concrete walls can be terminated using the device, which you may pour liquid concrete deep into the wall and can detain him in the hole (see figure ) .
To do this, made from scrap materials shield funnel, mount it on the wall and pour concrete into the funnel top. The mixture was subjected to vibration. After setting of the concrete ( 24 hours ) to dismantle the funnel and cut the excess concrete puncher . Putty surface .
If the cracks in the wall of plasterboard , then cut out the damaged section of special nail file to drywall sheets or electric jigsaw . It is desirable to cut rectangular shaped portion .
To determine the crack progresses or not it is necessary for both sides to establish control beacons . Beacons are circular steel sections , diameter 10 – 12 mm , embedded in the wall. At the ends of the rods are applied to one prescriber risk and measure the distance between them.
Value and date of measuring the distance between the risks recorded directly on the wall. After a month, make repeated measurements . If there are no changes , repeated measurements were carried out in three months. When the size of the crack is necessary to seek advice from professionals .
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